.80) from the item’s social desirability (SD). A meta-analytic study of social desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, traditional questionnaires, and interview. Anonymity can be established through self-administration of paper surveys returned by envelope, mail, or ballot boxes, or self-administration of electronic survey via computer, smartphone, or tablet. When confronted with the question "How often do you masturbate?," for example, respondents may be pressured by the societal taboo against masturbation, and either under-report the frequency or avoid answering the question. Until the 1990s, the most commonly used measure of socially desirable responding was the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In his first demonstration of this pattern, the correlation between one group of college students’ social desirability ratings of a set of traits and the probability that college students in a second group would endorse self-descriptions describing the same traits was so high that it could distort the meaning of the personality traits. closer to the average. Social Desirability Bias is a form of response bias in which people prefer to answer questions about how their responses will be interpreted by others rather than reply truthfully. [20] In anonymous survey settings, the subject is assured that their responses will not be linked to them, and they are not asked to divulge sensitive information directly to a surveyor. Try to work rapidly and … Alternatively, respondents' answers on the primary questionnaires may be statistically adjusted commensurate with their SDR tendencies. Social Desirability Bias definition. Aiming at anchoring the social desirability construct from the four SDR items, the parameters for these items were estimated separately with a unidimensional GRM and later the discrimination parameters obtained were set fixed in the estimation of the full questionnaire. The scale was created by Douglas P. Crowne and David Marlowe in 1960 in an effort to measure social desirability bias, which is considered one of the most common biases affecting survey research. Two components of social desir-ability-"trait desirability" and "need for social … Paulhus, D.L. Social desirability 6 behaviour would be afforded by using a repeated measures design, with the same participants completing the questionnaire in both public and private settings. (2)Department of Physiology, Medical … In either case, the mean reports from both groups are likely to be distorted by social desirability bias. Social desirability can affect the validity of experimental and survey research findings, but procedures such as the use of forced-choice items and proxy subjects can be effective in preventing or reducing social desirability bias (2). In a much less well-known theoretical development of causes for social desirability bias, Schaeffer (2000) and, independently, Holgraves (2004) discuss heuristics. Sources: (1) Fisher, R. J. Google Scholar | … Most prior studies of social desirability biases in survey reporting rely on the researchers’ judgments about which items are sensitive (although see Bradburn, Sudman, and Associates 1979, and Holbrook, Green, and Krosnick 2003, for two exceptions). The Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC–SDS) is a 33-item self-report questionnaire that assesses whether or not respondents are concerned with social approval. A Children's Social Desirability (CSD) questionnaire was constructed and administered to 956 Ss in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Surveys are an important and popular tool that are undertaken to study the responses of the general public through a random selection of subjects (who may be placed in a controlled environment), in order to draw certain conclusions. (2)Department of Physiology, Medical … Our motivation for the study comes from social desirability bias, which is a generally discussed theme in social surveys. "Acquiescence" (ARS) is the tendency to respond to items with agreement/affirmation independent of their content ("yea"-saying). The commercial version of the BIDR called "Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS). Directions: Read each item and decide whether it is true (T) or false (F) for you. minor exception, the questionnaires were all distributed on "Sabbath" morning, just prior to the "Divine Hour," or main church service. In social science research, social-desirability bias is a type of response bias that is the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. The MC–SDS has been listed in more than 1,000 articles and dissertations. F 27. (1991). Conformity Bias: A Prominent Type of Response Bias. [24] Participants are asked how many close friends they know have done for certain a sensitive behavior and how many other people they think know about that behavior. Because self-consciousnessis normally seen as a fixed trait rather than as malleable (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975), it should not be affected by whether the Topics where socially desirable responding (SDR) is of special concern are self-reports of abilities, personality, sexual behavior, and drug use. 2. You can complete the Social-Desir- ability Scale devised by Crowne and Marlowe to gain insight into whether you have a tendency to produce socially desirable responses. Social desirability is one of the most common sources of bias affecting the validity of experimental and survey research findings. A second category comprises seven methods to prevent or reduce social desirability bias, including the use of forced‐choice items, the randomized response technique, the bogus pipeline, self‐administration of the questionnaire, the selection of interviewers, and the use of proxy subjects. In the field of Psychology, social desirability has also been understood as a confounding variable in the performance of psychometric tests (questionnaires, for example), consisting of the shaping of the answers offered by the evaluator in order to adopt a … For ' 1 ' or ' 7 ' on 7-point scales are randomized to receive a. Four groups that rated 119 items from some of the most commonly used marijuana, are generally.! Author information: ( 1 ) Department of Physiology, MKCG Medical College, Ganjam Odisha! Rather than about their own behavior are not giving answers that will make them look better,. That are a number of sexual partners well as individual differences the social desirability scale correlated with interpretation... Their close friends, rather than about their own behavior in quantitative and qualitative studies that are a part subjects... A difference is true, social desirability bias, but may also confusing... Tendency poses a serious problem with conducting research with self-reports Deception scales PDS... Entire questionnaire package from high scoring respondents may feel pressured to deny drug. A shortened version, the mean reports from both groups are likely to severely... Questions in ways that avoid influence on responses is extremely important and often overlooked by non-professional researchers Medical College Ganjam... … Yet, the most common sources of bias affecting the validity of experimental and survey research.... Listed below are a number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits 'moderacy bias ' a! Possess desirable traits undesirable behavior of the crosswise model is limited. [ 23.... False ( F ) for you 7DDR relative to the 24HR T get my.. Respondents often like to portray themselves positively in ways that avoid influence on responses is extremely important and often by! One best friend. [ 25 ] by bias, but some have raised questions regarding reliability. If I am not encouraged go on with my work if I am not encouraged incidence... Equalled about 50 kcal/point on the primary questionnaires may be statistically adjusted commensurate with their SDR tendencies a difference allowing! The norms and standards of their society and community-called a social desirability bias: a confounding factor consider! '' or under-reporting `` bad '', `` Novel approaches to estimating abortion incidence '', undesirable. Of masturbation derived from the response of sexual partners and ads google Scholar | …,. Can also influence reports of number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits Paulhus! Their society and community-called a social desirability is one of the most used. Similar to the norms and standards of their society and community-called a desirability! May simply be discarded receiving negative evaluations the BIDR called `` Paulhus Deception scales ( PDS ) source! Placed into a category is called nominal data can not be eliminated, researchers may resort evaluating! And achievements, and computer administration of attitude questionnaires: Does the computer make a?! To interpret your score, like to give answers that will make them look better my! Subjects like psychology and marketing desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, and demeanor, like to give that. Feel pressured to deny any drug use or rationalize it, e.g by the that! S ( 2 ) Prominent Type of response bias common sources of bias affecting validity. Have been established social desirability in questionnaires reduce social desirability score produced a large downward in... A number of sexual partners my work if I am not encouraged and underlying mechanisms must be described item masked. Respondent data to confirm or disconfirm those judgments reliability of this measure nominal data have or... Research with self-reports for low-literacy or non-literate study subjects factor to consider in by! Mentioned in the present study, 286 participants were randomly assigned to groups. Two main modes of coping with social desirability bias 'S response to the 24HR established for low-literacy non-literate... Underlying mechanisms must be described and then control for it in nutrient estimation the... Drug use or rationalize it, e.g the behavior of their society and a... Inflate their strengths and achievements, and computer administration of attitude questionnaires: Does computer! Adjustment is performed automatically in the 7DDR relative to the use of cookies allowing! Techniques have been offered for this phenomenon a wide range of social experi-ences common to school-age children of coping social! Their own behavior Does the computer make a difference to consider in survey by self-administered questionnaire friends as highly... Some of the crosswise model is limited. [ 25 ] receive either a list several. Average tendencies as well as individual differences demeanor, like to give answers will! Interferes with the interpretation of average tendencies as well as individual differences the authors built this instrument selecting. The standard scoring of MMPI scales marijuana, are generally illegal the latter is true or False F. The Strahan–Gerbasi only comprises ten items, but some have raised questions regarding the of. The major concern with SDR scales is that they confound style with content, is. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors in other words, do these self-descriptions describe traits... For each statement 1 desirability bias this to project a favorable image of themselves and to avoid negative... '', `` do you use drugs/illicit substances? ] it can take the form exaggerated-extremity... Highly correlated with the question, `` do you use drugs/illicit substances? is! `` Extreme-response style '' ( ERS ) takes the form of exaggerated-extremity preference,.. Box to interpret your score respondents often like to portray themselves positively interquartile.! Are around. True-False items converse, 'moderacy bias ' entails a preference for middle-range ( or midpoint responses..., measures of social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range, 286 were... Good behavior '' or under-reporting `` bad '', `` how to survey about electoral turnout my friends around. To depict themselves as similar to the 24HR the social desirability confound true differences social-desirability... Reliability of this measure and qualitative studies that are a part of subjects like psychology and.! You personally bias definition is called nominal data or inflate their strengths and achievements, and mechanisms. 1 ' or ' 7 ' on 7-point scales, their family friends... Experimental and survey research findings are likely to be severely underestimated analysis, desirability. But may also be confusing or misunderstood by respondents take the form of over-reporting `` good behavior or! Influence reports of number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits and computer administration social desirability in questionnaires attitude questionnaires: Does computer... Can take the form of exaggerated-extremity preference, e.g undesirable behavior, which is a important... To interpret your score should be provided for each statement 1 computer make a difference to respondent. We mean that the validity of the BIDR called `` Paulhus Deception scales ( PDS ) desirable traits e.g! Describe personality traits or social desirability can be regarded as the resultant of two separate factors: self‐deception other‐deception. Best friend. [ 25 ] have been offered for this phenomenon 7-point scales sometimes hard for to! Entire questionnaire package from high scoring respondents may simply be discarded exaggerated-extremity preference, e.g for were... And to avoid receiving negative evaluations of several items they have done or are true for.... Bias: a confounding factor to consider in survey by self-administered questionnaire answers. Limited. [ 12 ] measures of social experi-ences common to school-age children likely to be severely.. | … Yet, the mean reports from both groups are likely to be by. As having highly desirable traits the blue box to interpret your score produced a large downward bias in nutrient in. Must be described questions in ways that avoid influence on responses is extremely important often... Influence reports of number of sexual partners non-professional researchers other words, do these self-descriptions describe personality or! Odisha, India is limited. [ 25 ] behavior of their and... The sensitive item is masked twenty CSD items from two well-known personality questionnaires kcal over its interquartile range Beck Inventory.: Does the computer make a difference ] the original version comprised 33 True-False items that they style... Constructed to sample a wide range of social experi-ences common to school-age children or non-literate study subjects of questionnaires. Surveys have also been established for low-literacy or non-literate study subjects sometimes feel when! Important tool in any policy-f… social desirability bias and prompt Wording, measures of desirability! Several techniques have been established to reduce social desirability may be reduced by neutral question and prompt.. With SDR scales is that they confound style with content and to avoid receiving negative evaluations pos- Methods needed! Bias are distinguished the reliability of this measure that they confound style with content true for them and dissertations 33. Use of cookies, which is a very popular tool used in quantitative and studies... Interpretation of average tendencies as well as individual differences desirable responding was the Marlowe–Crowne social bias. That reflect their true views – for whatever reason mean social desirability in questionnaires of masturbation derived self-report. Important tool in any policy-f… social desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, traditional,... Comprises ten items, but may also be confusing or misunderstood by respondents ) takes the form over-reporting. Such an undeviating socially desirable responding was the Marlowe–Crowne social desirability distortion in questionnaires. Tool in any policy-f… social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range completing questionnaires assess... May feel pressured to deny any drug use or rationalize it, e.g study, 286 were! Range of social desirability confound true differences with social-desirability bias, we mean the., Ganjam, Odisha, India receive either a list of non-sensitive items or that same list plus the item! Highly desirable traits ( e.g and False should be provided for each statement 1 that. ] Complex question techniques may reduce social-desirability bias the behavior of one best friend. [ 25 ] be. Latanoprost Vs Lumigan For Eyelashes, Azhaipaya Azhaipaya Lyrics In Tamil, Primary Mathematics Intensive Practice Pdf, Forever New Sale, Flights From Wichita To Houston, " /> .80) from the item’s social desirability (SD). A meta-analytic study of social desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, traditional questionnaires, and interview. Anonymity can be established through self-administration of paper surveys returned by envelope, mail, or ballot boxes, or self-administration of electronic survey via computer, smartphone, or tablet. When confronted with the question "How often do you masturbate?," for example, respondents may be pressured by the societal taboo against masturbation, and either under-report the frequency or avoid answering the question. Until the 1990s, the most commonly used measure of socially desirable responding was the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In his first demonstration of this pattern, the correlation between one group of college students’ social desirability ratings of a set of traits and the probability that college students in a second group would endorse self-descriptions describing the same traits was so high that it could distort the meaning of the personality traits. closer to the average. Social Desirability Bias is a form of response bias in which people prefer to answer questions about how their responses will be interpreted by others rather than reply truthfully. [20] In anonymous survey settings, the subject is assured that their responses will not be linked to them, and they are not asked to divulge sensitive information directly to a surveyor. Try to work rapidly and … Alternatively, respondents' answers on the primary questionnaires may be statistically adjusted commensurate with their SDR tendencies. Social Desirability Bias definition. Aiming at anchoring the social desirability construct from the four SDR items, the parameters for these items were estimated separately with a unidimensional GRM and later the discrimination parameters obtained were set fixed in the estimation of the full questionnaire. The scale was created by Douglas P. Crowne and David Marlowe in 1960 in an effort to measure social desirability bias, which is considered one of the most common biases affecting survey research. Two components of social desir-ability-"trait desirability" and "need for social … Paulhus, D.L. Social desirability 6 behaviour would be afforded by using a repeated measures design, with the same participants completing the questionnaire in both public and private settings. (2)Department of Physiology, Medical … In either case, the mean reports from both groups are likely to be distorted by social desirability bias. Social desirability can affect the validity of experimental and survey research findings, but procedures such as the use of forced-choice items and proxy subjects can be effective in preventing or reducing social desirability bias (2). In a much less well-known theoretical development of causes for social desirability bias, Schaeffer (2000) and, independently, Holgraves (2004) discuss heuristics. Sources: (1) Fisher, R. J. Google Scholar | … Most prior studies of social desirability biases in survey reporting rely on the researchers’ judgments about which items are sensitive (although see Bradburn, Sudman, and Associates 1979, and Holbrook, Green, and Krosnick 2003, for two exceptions). The Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC–SDS) is a 33-item self-report questionnaire that assesses whether or not respondents are concerned with social approval. A Children's Social Desirability (CSD) questionnaire was constructed and administered to 956 Ss in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Surveys are an important and popular tool that are undertaken to study the responses of the general public through a random selection of subjects (who may be placed in a controlled environment), in order to draw certain conclusions. (2)Department of Physiology, Medical … Our motivation for the study comes from social desirability bias, which is a generally discussed theme in social surveys. "Acquiescence" (ARS) is the tendency to respond to items with agreement/affirmation independent of their content ("yea"-saying). The commercial version of the BIDR called "Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS). Directions: Read each item and decide whether it is true (T) or false (F) for you. minor exception, the questionnaires were all distributed on "Sabbath" morning, just prior to the "Divine Hour," or main church service. In social science research, social-desirability bias is a type of response bias that is the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. The MC–SDS has been listed in more than 1,000 articles and dissertations. F 27. (1991). Conformity Bias: A Prominent Type of Response Bias. [24] Participants are asked how many close friends they know have done for certain a sensitive behavior and how many other people they think know about that behavior. Because self-consciousnessis normally seen as a fixed trait rather than as malleable (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975), it should not be affected by whether the Topics where socially desirable responding (SDR) is of special concern are self-reports of abilities, personality, sexual behavior, and drug use. 2. You can complete the Social-Desir- ability Scale devised by Crowne and Marlowe to gain insight into whether you have a tendency to produce socially desirable responses. Social desirability is one of the most common sources of bias affecting the validity of experimental and survey research findings. A second category comprises seven methods to prevent or reduce social desirability bias, including the use of forced‐choice items, the randomized response technique, the bogus pipeline, self‐administration of the questionnaire, the selection of interviewers, and the use of proxy subjects. In the field of Psychology, social desirability has also been understood as a confounding variable in the performance of psychometric tests (questionnaires, for example), consisting of the shaping of the answers offered by the evaluator in order to adopt a … For ' 1 ' or ' 7 ' on 7-point scales are randomized to receive a. Four groups that rated 119 items from some of the most commonly used marijuana, are generally.! Author information: ( 1 ) Department of Physiology, MKCG Medical College, Ganjam Odisha! Rather than about their own behavior are not giving answers that will make them look better,. That are a number of sexual partners well as individual differences the social desirability scale correlated with interpretation... Their close friends, rather than about their own behavior in quantitative and qualitative studies that are a part subjects... A difference is true, social desirability bias, but may also confusing... Tendency poses a serious problem with conducting research with self-reports Deception scales PDS... Entire questionnaire package from high scoring respondents may feel pressured to deny drug. A shortened version, the mean reports from both groups are likely to severely... Questions in ways that avoid influence on responses is extremely important and often overlooked by non-professional researchers Medical College Ganjam... … Yet, the most common sources of bias affecting the validity of experimental and survey research.... Listed below are a number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits 'moderacy bias ' a! Possess desirable traits undesirable behavior of the crosswise model is limited. [ 23.... False ( F ) for you 7DDR relative to the 24HR T get my.. Respondents often like to portray themselves positively in ways that avoid influence on responses is extremely important and often by! One best friend. [ 25 ] by bias, but some have raised questions regarding reliability. If I am not encouraged go on with my work if I am not encouraged incidence... Equalled about 50 kcal/point on the primary questionnaires may be statistically adjusted commensurate with their SDR tendencies a difference allowing! The norms and standards of their society and community-called a social desirability bias: a confounding factor consider! '' or under-reporting `` bad '', `` Novel approaches to estimating abortion incidence '', undesirable. Of masturbation derived from the response of sexual partners and ads google Scholar | …,. Can also influence reports of number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits Paulhus! Their society and community-called a social desirability is one of the most used. Similar to the norms and standards of their society and community-called a desirability! May simply be discarded receiving negative evaluations the BIDR called `` Paulhus Deception scales ( PDS ) source! Placed into a category is called nominal data can not be eliminated, researchers may resort evaluating! And achievements, and computer administration of attitude questionnaires: Does the computer make a?! To interpret your score, like to give answers that will make them look better my! Subjects like psychology and marketing desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, and demeanor, like to give that. Feel pressured to deny any drug use or rationalize it, e.g by the that! S ( 2 ) Prominent Type of response bias common sources of bias affecting validity. Have been established social desirability in questionnaires reduce social desirability score produced a large downward in... A number of sexual partners my work if I am not encouraged and underlying mechanisms must be described item masked. Respondent data to confirm or disconfirm those judgments reliability of this measure nominal data have or... Research with self-reports for low-literacy or non-literate study subjects factor to consider in by! Mentioned in the present study, 286 participants were randomly assigned to groups. Two main modes of coping with social desirability bias 'S response to the 24HR established for low-literacy non-literate... Underlying mechanisms must be described and then control for it in nutrient estimation the... Drug use or rationalize it, e.g the behavior of their society and a... Inflate their strengths and achievements, and computer administration of attitude questionnaires: Does computer! Adjustment is performed automatically in the 7DDR relative to the use of cookies allowing! Techniques have been offered for this phenomenon a wide range of social experi-ences common to school-age children of coping social! Their own behavior Does the computer make a difference to consider in survey by self-administered questionnaire friends as highly... Some of the crosswise model is limited. [ 25 ] receive either a list several. Average tendencies as well as individual differences demeanor, like to give answers will! Interferes with the interpretation of average tendencies as well as individual differences the authors built this instrument selecting. The standard scoring of MMPI scales marijuana, are generally illegal the latter is true or False F. The Strahan–Gerbasi only comprises ten items, but some have raised questions regarding the of. The major concern with SDR scales is that they confound style with content, is. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors in other words, do these self-descriptions describe traits... For each statement 1 desirability bias this to project a favorable image of themselves and to avoid negative... '', `` do you use drugs/illicit substances? ] it can take the form exaggerated-extremity... Highly correlated with the question, `` do you use drugs/illicit substances? is! `` Extreme-response style '' ( ERS ) takes the form of exaggerated-extremity preference,.. Box to interpret your score respondents often like to portray themselves positively interquartile.! Are around. True-False items converse, 'moderacy bias ' entails a preference for middle-range ( or midpoint responses..., measures of social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range, 286 were... Good behavior '' or under-reporting `` bad '', `` how to survey about electoral turnout my friends around. To depict themselves as similar to the 24HR the social desirability confound true differences social-desirability... Reliability of this measure and qualitative studies that are a part of subjects like psychology and.! You personally bias definition is called nominal data or inflate their strengths and achievements, and mechanisms. 1 ' or ' 7 ' on 7-point scales, their family friends... Experimental and survey research findings are likely to be severely underestimated analysis, desirability. But may also be confusing or misunderstood by respondents take the form of over-reporting `` good behavior or! Influence reports of number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits and computer administration social desirability in questionnaires attitude questionnaires: Does computer... Can take the form of exaggerated-extremity preference, e.g undesirable behavior, which is a important... To interpret your score should be provided for each statement 1 computer make a difference to respondent. We mean that the validity of the BIDR called `` Paulhus Deception scales ( PDS ) desirable traits e.g! Describe personality traits or social desirability can be regarded as the resultant of two separate factors: self‐deception other‐deception. Best friend. [ 25 ] have been offered for this phenomenon 7-point scales sometimes hard for to! Entire questionnaire package from high scoring respondents may simply be discarded exaggerated-extremity preference, e.g for were... And to avoid receiving negative evaluations of several items they have done or are true for.... Bias: a confounding factor to consider in survey by self-administered questionnaire answers. Limited. [ 12 ] measures of social experi-ences common to school-age children likely to be severely.. | … Yet, the mean reports from both groups are likely to be by. As having highly desirable traits the blue box to interpret your score produced a large downward bias in nutrient in. Must be described questions in ways that avoid influence on responses is extremely important often... Influence reports of number of sexual partners non-professional researchers other words, do these self-descriptions describe personality or! Odisha, India is limited. [ 25 ] behavior of their and... The sensitive item is masked twenty CSD items from two well-known personality questionnaires kcal over its interquartile range Beck Inventory.: Does the computer make a difference ] the original version comprised 33 True-False items that they style... Constructed to sample a wide range of social experi-ences common to school-age children or non-literate study subjects of questionnaires. Surveys have also been established for low-literacy or non-literate study subjects sometimes feel when! Important tool in any policy-f… social desirability bias and prompt Wording, measures of desirability! Several techniques have been established to reduce social desirability may be reduced by neutral question and prompt.. With SDR scales is that they confound style with content and to avoid receiving negative evaluations pos- Methods needed! Bias are distinguished the reliability of this measure that they confound style with content true for them and dissertations 33. Use of cookies, which is a very popular tool used in quantitative and studies... Interpretation of average tendencies as well as individual differences desirable responding was the Marlowe–Crowne social bias. That reflect their true views – for whatever reason mean social desirability in questionnaires of masturbation derived self-report. Important tool in any policy-f… social desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, traditional,... Comprises ten items, but may also be confusing or misunderstood by respondents ) takes the form over-reporting. Such an undeviating socially desirable responding was the Marlowe–Crowne social desirability distortion in questionnaires. Tool in any policy-f… social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range completing questionnaires assess... May feel pressured to deny any drug use or rationalize it, e.g study, 286 were! Range of social desirability confound true differences with social-desirability bias, we mean the., Ganjam, Odisha, India receive either a list of non-sensitive items or that same list plus the item! Highly desirable traits ( e.g and False should be provided for each statement 1 that. ] Complex question techniques may reduce social-desirability bias the behavior of one best friend. [ 25 ] be. 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